Tramadol Hydrochloride is known as a centrally acting opioid analgesic, being a synthetic analog of the phenanthrene alkaloid codeine, used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. Its extended release form is used to treat adults with moderate to moderately severe chronic pain. It was developed and introduced in the late 1970s by Grünenthal GmbH, a German pharmaceutical company based in Stolberg, North Rhine-Westphalia.
Many pharmacology books say that the exact action of the drug is not known and hasn’t yet been traced. However, reputable sources claim that the drug possesses minimal agonist actions at the mu-opioid receptor that may cause some euphoric effects. It also releases serotonin, which keeps the pain receptors closed, thereby lessening the pain signals sent to the brain. It also inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine, useful for treating neuropathic pain.
As a painkiller, Tramadol HCl is used for a wide array of purposes. It is prescribed for patients suffering from fibromyalgia, acid reflux, pain related to injury, restless leg syndrome, postoperative pain, cancer pain, and many more. The drug works like a narcotic but strictly speaking, it is chemically different from the controlled substance. There is significantly lesser respiratory depression, which is the major problem in most narcotics and there is little evidence for abuse of the drug.
A visit to your doctor is necessary before you take the drug. The side effects can be very serious and overdosing is even worse. You are prohibited to take this drug if you have been addicted to other controlled substances in the past. Before taking this drug, make sure you understand its effects and that a possible dependence may occur. You must also bear in mind that + abrupt stopping of the therapy may lead to withdrawal syndrome and can be very dangerous to a misinformed user.
People with a past and present health history of seizures, head injury, metabolic disorders or are taking other medications such as antidepressants and muscle relaxants have increased susceptibility to episodes of seizure. It also impairs judgment, thinking, and reactions; drowsiness and decreased alertness may also result, which could be dangerous to you and the people around. You are then advised against working with large equipments and doing activities that require concentration and alertness while on the drug.
Other side effects include dizziness, vertigo, headache, somnolence, central nervous system stimulation, anxiety, incoordination, confusion, euphoria, nervousness, paresthesia, sleep disorders, dyspepsia, dry mouth, abdominal pain, anorexia, flatulence, hepatitis, stomatitis, liver failure, syncope, orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, palpitation, pulmonary edema, Stevens-Johnsons disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, suicidal tendency, weight loss, asthenia, and many more.
Unlike the over-the-counter pain killers, Tramadol has lesser probability to cause ulceration and consumption can be with or without food. Use with caution if also taking MAO Inhibitors, those with hepatic and renal dysfunctions, if presently suffering from increased intracranial pressure, and with metabolic disorders. It should not be taken if allergic to any of its derivative to prevent anaphylaxis. If overdose occurs, Naloxone is the accepted antidote.